Title Explosive volcanism on the ultraslow- spreading Gakkel Ridge, Arctic Ocean
Author Sohn, R.A.; Willis, C.; Humphris, S.; Shank, T.M.; Singh, H.; Edmonds, H.N.; Kunz, C.; Hedman, U.; Helmke, E.; Jakuba, M.; Liljebladh, B.; Linder, J.; Murphy, C.; Nakamura, K.; Sato, T.; Schlindwein, V.; Stranne, C.; Tausenfreund, M.; Upchurch, L.; Winsor, P.; Jakobsson, M.; Soule, A.
Author Affil Sohn, R.A., Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Wood Hole, MA. Other: Marine Science Institute; Swedish Polar Secretariat, Sweden; Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research, Federal Republic of Germany; John Hopkins University; Goteborg University, Sweden; National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Japan; Ocean Research Institute, Japan; Stockholm University, Sweden
Source Nature (London), 453(7199), p.1236- 1238, . Publisher: Macmillan Journals, London, United Kingdom. ISSN: 0028- 0836
Publication Date Jun. 26, 2008
Notes In English. 23 refs. CRREL Acc. No: 64003799
Index Terms ocean bottom; photography; volcanoes; Arctic Ocean--Mid-Arctic Ocean Ridge; Arctic Ocean; basalts; explosive eruptions; igneous rocks; imagery; International Polar Year 2007- 08; IPY 2007-08 Research Publications; Mid- Arctic Ocean Ridge; mid-ocean ridge basalts; mid-ocean ridges; monitoring; ocean floors; pyroclastics; rates; sea-floor spreading; seismic networks; submarine volcanoes; volcanic rocks; volcanism
Abstract During the International Polar Year Expedition to the Gakkel Ridge, Arctic Basin at 85E, photographic and video images were obtained of contemporary volcanic lavas at depths of 3000m on this remote, ice-covered ridge (bathymetry of the ridge and photomicrographs of recovered pyroclasts). The volcanoes are ~ 2000m in diameter, a few 100m high, are flat-topped with prominent central craters, and show fresh lava flows mainly of pillows and ropey sheet flows. Oden volcano is ~ 300m high, ~1.5 km in diameter with an ~ 50m deep central crater ~500m in diameter. The cratered volcanoes may be the source vents of pyroclastic eruptions including vulcanian explosions. Recovered clasts are glassy basalt containing olivine and plagioclase microphencrysts, and details are presented of the pyroclastic flows and bubble wall fragments covering 10 km2. Fragmentation of lavas at these depths requires 13.5 wt% CO2 and the discoveries show that pyroclastic activity occurs at the deepest depths in MOR volcanic systems.
URL http://hdl.handle.net/10.1038/nature07075
Publication Type journal article
Record ID 298908