Title Brooding and species diversity in the Southern Ocean; selection of brooders or speciation within brooding clades?
Author Pearse, J.S.; Mooi, R.; Lockhart, S.J.; Brandt, A.
Author Affil Pearse, J.S., University of California at Santa Cruz, Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Santa Cruz, CA. Other: California Academy of Sciences; Zoologisches Institut und Zoologisches Museum, Federal Republic of Germany
Source p.181-196, ; Smithsonian at the poles, Washington, DC, May 3-4, 2007, edited by I. Krupnik, M.A. Lang and S.E. Miller. Publisher: Smithsonian Institution Scholarly Press, Washington, DC, United States. ISBN: 978-0-9788460-1-50-9788460-1- X
Publication Date 2009
Notes In English. NSF Grant OPP-0124131. 142 refs. Ant. Acc. No: 86087. CRREL Acc. No: 63004402
Index Terms biogeography; ecology; ocean environments; paleoecology; salinity; temperature; Southern Ocean; adaptation; Arthropoda; benthic taxa; biologic evolution; Cenozoic; cladistics; cold adaptation; Crustacea; eggs; glacial environment; International Polar Year 2007-08; Invertebrata; IPY 2007-08 Research Publications; larvae; Mandibulata; marine environment; paleosalinity; paleotemperature; Quaternary; species diversity
Abstract We summarize and evaluate explanations that have been proposed to account for the unusually high number of benthic marine invertebrate species in the Southern Ocean with nonpelagic development. These explanations are divided between those involving adaptation to current conditions in this cold-water environment, selecting for nonpelagic larval development, and those involving vicariant events that either exterminated a high proportion of species with pelagic development (the extinction hypothesis) or enhanced speciation in taxa that already had nonpelagic development. In the latter case, glacial maxima over the Antarctic Continental Shelf in the Pliocene/Pleistocene glacial cycles could have created refuges where speciation occurred (the ACS hypothesis), or the powerful Antarctic Circumpolar Current passing through Drake Passage for over 30 million years could have transported species with nonpelagic development to new habitats to create new species (the ACC hypothesis). We examine the distribution and phylogenetic history of echinoderms and crustaceans in the Southern Ocean to evaluate these different explanations. We could find little or no evidence that nonpelagic development is a direct adaptation to conditions in the Southern Ocean. Some evidence supports the three vicariant hypotheses, with the ACC hypothesis perhaps the best predictor of observed patterns, both the unusual number of species with nonpelagic development and the notably high biodiversity found in the Southern Ocean.
URL http://hdl.handle.net/10088/6821
Publication Type monograph
Record ID 292170