Title Milestones in the study of diving physiology; Antarctic emperor penguins and Weddell seals
Author Kooyman, G.
Author Affil Kooyman, G., Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, CA
Source p.265-270, ; Smithsonian at the poles, Washington, DC, May 3-4, 2007, edited by I. Krupnik, M.A. Lang and S.E. Miller. Publisher: Smithsonian Institution Scholarly Press, Washington, DC, United States. ISBN: 978-0-9788460-1-50-9788460-1- X
Publication Date 2009
Notes In English. 17 refs. Ant. Acc. No: 86093. CRREL Acc. No: 63004405
Index Terms ecology; ice; ice cover; Antarctica; Southern Ocean; Aves; behavior; Carnivora; Chordata; Eutheria; habitat; International Polar Year 2007-08; IPY 2007-08 Research Publications; Mammalia; Neornithes; physiology; Pinnipedia; sea ice; Sphenisciformes; Tetrapoda; Theria; Vertebrata
Abstract McMurdo Sound, Antarctica, is the best place to conduct diving physiology studies on marine birds and mammals under free-diving conditions. Both emperor penguins and Weddell seals live naturally in areas of extensive sea ice under which they dive and hunt for prey. The first experimental diving studies were conducted on Weddell seals in 1964 using the isolated breathing hole protocol for the first time. Sea ice, 2 m thick, covers McMurdo Sound until late December. Below the ice is the deepwater environment where Antarctic predators hunt their prey. Here in the Sound diving studies involve attachment of a recording device to a seal or bird and release of the animal into the hole cut in sea ice. This procedure sets the stage for a bird or mammal to hunt without competition, and the only restrictive condition is that they must return to the release hole to breathe. After the animal surfaces, the attached recording devices can be retrieved and the information downloaded. Results from using this experimental protocol range from determining the first foraging patterns of any diving mammal, to measuring the first blood and muscle chemistry fluctuations during the extended and unrestrained dives. These experiments are the standard for understanding the hypoxic tolerance of diving animals, their aerobic diving limits, and their strategies of foraging, to mention a few. The protocol will continue to be used in 2008 for studies of both emperor penguins and Weddell seals by several investigators.
URL http://hdl.handle.net/10088/6810
Publication Type monograph
Record ID 292164