Title Characteristics of Arctic and sub- Arctic soils during the International Polar Year [Sostoyaniye arkticheskikh i subarkticheskikh pochv na period Mezhdunarodnogo polyarnogo goda]
Author Goryachkin, S.V.; Gilichinskiy, D.A.; Gubin, S.V.; Lapteva, Y.M.; Lupachev, A.V.; Fedorov-Davydov, D.G.; Zazovskaya, E.P.; Mazhitova, G.G.; Mergelov, N.S.; Vinogradova, Y.A.; Melekhina, Y.N.; Taskayeva, A.A.
Author Affil Goryachkin, S.V., Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Geography, Moscow, Russian Federation. Other: Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Physicochemical and Biological Problems in Soil Science, Russian Federation; Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Biology, Russian Federation
Source Polar cryosphere and continental waters [Polyarnaya kriosfera i vody sushi], V.M. Kotlyakov, p.193-217, . Publisher: Paulsen Editions, Moscow, Russian Federation. ISBN: 978-5-98797-044-7
Publication Date 2011
Notes In Russian with English summary. 16 refs. CRREL Acc. No: 66000982
Index Terms animals; carbon isotopes; climatic change; isotopes; lichens; permafrost; radioactive isotopes; soils; tundra; vegetation; Russia--Kolyma River basin; Russia--Russian Arctic; Spitsbergen; Russia-- Vorkuta; Russia--Yakutia; age; Arctic region; Asia; biota; C-14; carbon; climate change; Commonwealth of Independent States; Europe; International Polar Year 2007-08; Kolyma River basin; Komi Russian Federation; organic compounds; Russian Arctic; Russian Federation; Svalbard; Vorkuta Russian Federation; Yakutia Russian Federation
Abstract The state of several dynamic parameters of polar soils for the period of the International Polar Year 2007-2008 is shown. In 2007 and 2008 the data on tundra soils of the Vorkuta tundra, Northern Yakutia and Spitsbergen has been collected and analyzed. It was found out that the nano- relief of permafrost table surfaces, the texture of frozen substrates, ice content and the change of a water regime of supra- permafrost soil horizons during the maximum thawing lead to active lateral migration of soil material on a frozen ground surface, its redistribution between elements of patterned ground and to formation of deep supra- permafrost accumulations of organic material. The thawing depth of soils of Low-Kolyma lowland depends on not only a climate and a temperature regime of each concrete year, but also on parent materials, the character of the top horizons of soils, presence or absence of flooding, precipitation of autumn time. It was distinguished that it is not enough reason to relate the tendency of thawing depth increase with the climate warming or with any other global reasons--the maximal depths of soil thawing observed in 1991, 2002-2005 and 2007, most likely, correspond to temperature maxima of intracentury climatic cycles. The relation of structure and distribution of microfauna with a soil temperature regime of Vorkuta tundra is shown. Collembolans and oribatides occupy organic horizons (including a layer of live mosses) of permafrost soils of moss-lichen tundra while the mesofauna communities in soils with a different temperature regimes are close on structure and content. In tundra soils the most dense population of microfauna is observed in superficial horizons--in a layer of live mosses and weakly decomposed soil litter. In the bottom part of a soil litter and in mineral horizons the population sharply decreases. The new species from the Byrrhidae family--Cytilus auricomus for the European northeast of Russia was detected. It was also shown that in the investigated soils of Spitsbergen the superficial horizons have lower rates of a carbon exchange and, accordingly, more ancient radiocarbon age, than earlier received dates. Thus, in high latitudes of Arctic the acceleration of an exchange of soil carbon is not observed, despite global warming.
Publication Type monograph
Record ID 311335