Title Source apportionment of elevated wintertime PAHs by compound-specific radiocarbon analysis
Author Sheesley, R.J.; Krusa, M.; Krecl, P.; Johansson, C.; Gustafsson, O.
Author Affil Sheesley, R.J., Stockholm University, Department of Applied Environmental Science, Stockholm, Sweden
Source Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 9(10), p.3347-3356, . Publisher: Copernicus, Katlenburg-Lindau, International. ISSN: 1680- 7316
Publication Date 2009
Notes In English. Includes supplement: http://www.atmos-chem- phys.net/9/3347/2009/acp-9-3347-2009- supplement.pdf; published in Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions: 12 December 2008, http://www.atmos-chem-phys- discuss.net/8/20901/2008/acpd-8-20901- 2008.html ; accessed in Apr., 2011. 52 refs. GeoRef Acc. No: 310577
Index Terms biomass; carbon isotopes; environmental effects; human activity; hydrocarbons; isotopes; pollution; radioactive isotopes; spectra; Arctic region; Sweden--Lycksele; Sweden--Vasterbotten; air pollution; aromatic hydrocarbons; atmospheric transport; boreal environment; C-14; carbon; Europe; Lycksele Sweden; mass spectra; organic compounds; pollutants; polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; provenance; risk assessment; Scandinavia; seasonal variations; Sweden; terrestrial environment; total organic carbon; transport; Vasterbotten Sweden; Western Europe
Abstract Natural abundance radiocarbon analysis facilitates distinct source apportionment between contemporary biomass/biofuel (14C "alive") versus fossil fuel (14C "dead") combustion. Here, the first compound-specific radiocarbon analysis (CSRA) of atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was demonstrated for a set of samples collected in Lycksele, Sweden a small town with frequent episodes of severe atmospheric pollution in the winter. Renewed interest in using residential wood combustion (RWC) means that this type of seasonal pollution is of increasing concern in many areas. Five individual/paired PAH isolates from three pooled fortnight-long filter collections were analyzed by CSRA: phenanthrene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benzo[b+k]fluoranthene and indeno[cd]pyrene plus benzo[ghi]perylene; phenanthrene was the only compound also analyzed in the gas phase. The measured Delta 14C for PAHs spanned from -138.3 per mil to 58.0 per mil. A simple isotopic mass balance model was applied to estimate the fraction biomass (fbiomass) contribution, which was constrained to 71-87% for the individual PAHs. Indeno[cd]pyrene plus benzo[ghi]perylene had an fbiomass of 71%, while fluoranthene and phenanthrene (gas phase) had the highest biomass contribution at 87%. The total organic carbon (TOC, defined as carbon remaining after removal of inorganic carbon) fbiomass was estimated to be 77%, which falls within the range for PAHs. This CSRA data of atmospheric PAHs established that RWC is the dominating source of atmospheric PAHs to this region of the boreal zone with some variations among RWC contributions to specific PAHs.
URL http://www.atmos-chem-phys.net/9/3347/2009/acp-9-3347-2009.pdf
Publication Type journal article
Record ID 65007024