Title A framework for late Quaternary lake-level fluctuations in Lake Karakul, eastern Pamir, focusing on lake-glacier landform interaction
Author Komatsu, T.; Watanabe, T.; Hirakawa, K.
Author Affil Komatsu, T., Hokkaido University, Graduate School of Environmental Science, Sapporo, Japan
Source Geomorphology, 119(3-4), p.198-211, . Publisher: Elsevier, Amsterdam, Netherlands. ISSN: 0169-555X
Publication Date July 1, 2010
Notes In English. Based on Publisher- supplied data GeoRef Acc. No: 309747
Index Terms climatic change; river basins; geomorphology; glaciation; glaciers; lakes; landforms; paleoclimatology; shores; Asia-- Pamirs; Tajikistan; Asia; Cenozoic; Central Asia; climate change; Commonwealth of Independent States; drainage basins; fluctuations; fluvial features; glacial features; highstands; Holocene; Lake Karakul; lake-level changes; landform evolution; outwash plains; paleolakes; Pamirs; Quaternary; shorelines; upper Holocene
Abstract This paper presents a framework for Late Quaternary lake-level fluctuation in the closed-basin lake "Lake Karakul" (eastern Pamir) on the basis of the stereoscopic observation of remote sensing data, field mapping and relative dating. The palaeoshorelines (approximately 60 in number) observed around the Lake Karakul can be classified into four groups: H Shorelines, M Shorelines, L Shorelines and LL Shorelines (in the descending order of height). The highest level of each of the above palaeoshoreline groups is 205 m, 85 m, 35 m and 10 m above the present lake level (3915 m asl). From the glacial landform developments and related valley-fill sedimentation patterns around the threshold of the present basin closure, the lake-level fluctuation defined by these palaeoshoreline groups was found to be a consequence of the water balance change within the closed basin. With respect to the timing of the palaeolake highstands, the relationship between lacustrine terraces and terminal moraines suggests the synchroneity of the highest stand of each palaeolake with the corresponding maximum glacier advance. The tentative chronology of the lake-level fluctuation was established from the synthesis of the style of geomorphic development and related glaciation, relative dating on moraine gravels, and the correlations to established glacial histories in and around the Pamir. The periods of the palaeolake highstands indicated by H, M, L and LL shorelines seem to be correlated with the antepenultimate glacial (MIS 8), penultimate glacial (MIS 6), early last glacial (MIS 4) and the late last glacial (MIS 2) periods, respectively. Based on this chronology, each of the 60 palaeoshorelines are expected to show stable lake surfaces during lake regressive stages toward the terminations from the glacial maxima of MIS 8, 6, 4 and 2. Given that the distinct landforms of each palaeoshoreline group were formed in association with the predominant stagnation or small re-transgression of the palaeolake, the short-term cooling and/or wetter episodes, which turned positive lake hydrologic balances from negative ones, were superimposed on the major palaeoclimate changes during the glacial termination periods.
URL http://hdl.handle.net/10.1016/j.geomorph.2010.03.025
Publication Type journal article
Record ID 65006365