Title Continuous lidar monitoring of polar stratospheric clouds at the South Pole
Author Campbell, J.R.; Welton, E.J.; Spinhirne, J.D.
Author Affil Campbell, J.R., Naval Research Laboratory, University Corporation for Atmospheric Research, Monterey, CA. Other: NASA, Goddard Space Flight Center; University of Arizona at Tucson
Source Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 90(5), p.613-617, . Publisher: American Meteorological Society, Boston, MA, United States. ISSN: 0003- 0007
Publication Date May 2009
Notes In English. 13 refs. Ant. Acc. No: 90993. GeoRef Acc. No: 308152
Index Terms climate; clouds (meteorology); lasers; lidar; measurement; meteorology; ozone; polar regions; radar; polar regions; Antarctica-- South Pole; Antarctica; clouds; cycles; depletion; laser methods; lidar methods; monitoring; radar methods; South Pole
Abstract Polar stratospheric clouds (PSC) play a primary role in the formation of annual "ozone holes" over Antarctica during the austral sunrise. Meridional temperature gradients in the lower stratosphere and upper troposphere, caused by strong radiative cooling, induce a broad dynamic vortex centered near the South Pole that decouples and insulates the winter polar airmass. PSC nucleate and grow as vortex temperatures gradually fall below equilibrium saturation and frost points for ambient sulfate, nitrate, and water vapor concentrations (generally below 197 K). Cloud surfaces promote heterogeneous reactions that convert stable chlorine and bromine-based molecules into photochemically active ones. As spring nears, and the sun reappears and rises, photolysis decomposes these partitioned compounds into individual halogen atoms that react with and catalytically destroy thousands of ozone molecules before they are stochastically neutralized.
URL http://hdl.handle.net/10.1175/2008BAMS2754.1
Publication Type journal article
Record ID 65005146